Life Cycle Assessments of Manure Management Techniques for the Baltic Sea Regions
The report summarizes the key results of the consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs) carried out for a variety of manure management techniques over the Baltic Sea Regions (BSR). For all manure management technologies assessed, the environmental impacts (in terms of potential to global warming, acidification of aquatic & terrestrial systems as well as phosphorus and nitrogen enrichment) are evaluated along the whole “manure management chain”, quantified and compared to the applying reference manure management system.
The LCA results presented in this report cover 4 main manure types (dairy cow slurry, fattening pig slurry, horse manure and solid manure from fattening pigs) and five BSR countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Poland and Sweden). Three main categories of techniques were investigated: i) separation technologies; ii) technologies involving energy production; and iii) other technologies. Assessed separation technologies include concentration technologies, state-of-the-art decanter centrifuge and source-separation technologies. The energy production technologies addressed consist of thermal gasification, incineration and anaerobic digestion (for which a myriad of carbon co-substrates to manure were investigated). In-house slurry cooling as well as the possibility to produce highly available phosphorus mineral fertilizers from manure ashes (obtained from manure thermo-gasification) were also assessed.
This report was prepared as part of Baltic Manure Work Package 5 - Assessing Sustainability of Manure Technology Chains.
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